Besnoitia (Total 179 Papers Found)

Bovine besnoitiosis, an economically important disease in cattle in some countries of Africa and Asia, is emerging in Europe. The definitive host of Besnoitia besnoiti, the causative agent of bovine besnoitiosis, is unknown and the transmission of the parasite is not completely understood. Sensitive and quantitative DNA detection methods are needed to determine whether serologically positive animals are infectious and to examine the role of vectors (e.g. haematophagous insects) in the transmissi ...
The capacity of hamster peritoneal cell populations to control viability and growth of Besnoitia and Toxoplasma organisms was assessed in vivo and in vitro. Immunized hamsters reduced the homologous organisms 100- to 10,000-fold over a 5-day period, but the heterologous infection increased 100- to 1,000-fold in numbers, similar as in the nonimmune controls. Passively administered antibody was ineffective although lytic cofactors were supplied by hamsters. In cultures, peritoneal cells from Besno ...
Comparative transmission electron microscopy onBesnoitia besnoiti and on a strain ofBesnoitia derived from goats in Kenya revealed that the two organisms differ in their pellicle, micropore, microtubules, nucleus, wall-forming body 1 (W1), amount of lipids and amylopectin. Thus the caprine besnoitia is probably a different organism and the termBesnoitia caprae should continue to be used. ...
BASSON , P. A., McCULLY, R. M. & BIGALKE, R. D. Observations on the pathogenesis of bovine and antelope strains of Besnoitia besnoiti (Marotel, 1912) infection in cattle and rabbits. Onderstepoort f . vet. R es. (1970), 37 (2), 105126. Histopathological studies were made on cattle and rabbits, artificially infected with either proliferative organisms of low and high passage level bovine strains of Besnoitia besnoiti (Marotel, 1912) grown in tissue culture and in rabbits, or cyst organisms from a ...
This is a case report of natural infection with Besnoitia darlingi in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Louisiana. Clinical pathologic data included a severe nonregenerative anemia, inflammatory leukogram, increased hepatocellular leakage enzymes, renal azotemia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, and proteinuria. Tissue cysts containing bradyzoites were found in the majority of organs, especially the skin, mucous membranes, kidneys, adrenals, lungs, and heart. Images of the ...
A new Caryospora coccidian species is described from the laughing kookaburra (Dacelo novaeguineae). Sporulated oocysts (n=30) are ovoid in shape with a smooth, colourless, bilayered oocyst wall and measure 31.4×29.3 (30.0-32.0×28.0-31.0) μm with a shape index of 1.1. Oocysts contain one spheroidal to subspheroidal sporocyst, 21.2×20.6 (20.0-24.0×20.0-21.0) μm. A spheroidal shaped sporocyst residuum is present; micropyle, Stieda, substieda and parastieda bodies are absent. Vermiform sporozo ...
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of besnoitiosis and associated histopathological changes amongst apparently healthy cattle and goats at slaughter in Maiduguri central abattoir Borno state, Nigeria. A total of 100 skin sections each, from the neck region were randomly collected, preserved in 10% formalin and later taken to the laboratory and subjected to histopathology to detect Besnoitia cysts and associated histopathological changes. This study revealed an overall prevale ...
Besnoitia besnoiti infection in cattle is an important emerging protozoan disease in Europe causing economic losses and severe clinical signs, such as generalized dermatitis, orchitis, and vulvitis in affected animals. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation was recently demonstrated as an important effector mechanism of PMN acting against several invading pathogens. In the present study, interactions of bovine PMN with tachyzoites of B. besnoiti were investigated in this respect in vitro. ...
The present study has been undertaken in order to provide information on the molecular structure of the cysts of Besnoitia besnoiti. To that end, immunohistochemical techniques have been used to investigate the expression of several enzymes and proteins implicated in the cellular membrane permeability of bradyzoites. Paraffin and frozen sections, which were obtained from subcutaneous tissue samples taken from naturally infected cattle (coming from northeast Spain), were treated with a panel of a ...
Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the nuclear-encoded small subunit rRNA (ssurRNA) gene were performed to examine the origin, phylogeny, and biogeographic relationships of Sarcocystis neurona isolates from opossums and horses from the State of Michigan, USA, in relation to other cyst-forming coccidia. A total of 31 taxa representing all recognized subfamilies and genera of Sarcocystidae were included in the analyses with clonal isolates of two opossum and two horse S. neurona. Phylogen ...
Bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti is considered an emergent disease in Europe. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and geographic distribution of B. besnoiti in cattle herds in continental Portugal and to identify potential spatial clustering of infection. A stratified two-stage cross-sectional serological survey was carried out between March 2012 and May 2013 with the five administrative NUTS II regions, Norte, Centro, Lisboa, Alentejo, and Alg ...
Specimens of Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in Michigan were examined over 1 year to document the presence of Besnoitia darlingi cysts. Cyst morphology, prevalence, seasonal variation, and tissue sites of isolation were studied. Histology and ultrastructural features of the detected cysts and bradyzoites were consistent with B. darlingi. In the opossums, B. darlingi had intracellular tissue cysts. Tissue cysts had a mean diameter of 560 microm and were separated from the host tissue by ...
Mice chronically infected with the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii or Besnoitia jellisoni were resistant to footpad challenge with Mycobacterium leprae. Resistance was manifested by lower numbers of recoverable M. leprae in the footpads of protozoal-infected mice and was enhanced in Toxoplasma-infected mice by a booster injection of Toxoplasma antigen in the infected footpad. The results suggest a major role for the activated macrophage in the control ofM. leprae infection. ...
This study was undertaken to investigate the hematological and biochemical changes in experimentally infected goats with Besnoitia caprae from the time of infection till 360 days post-infection (PI). Six male goats were inoculated subcutaneously with 13 × 10(7) bradyzoites of B. caprae, and blood samples were collected from the jugular vein. The total erythrocyte and total leukocyte counts, hematocrit value, and differential leukocyte counts were determined. Serum biochemical analysis, includin ...
Cattle besnoitiosis due to the cyst-forming coccidian parasite Besnoitia besnoiti has recently been reported in expansion in Europe since the end of the twentieth century. The B. besnoiti life cycle and many epidemiological traits are still poorly known. Hematophagous flies, including the worldwide-distributed Stomoxys calcitrans, could be mechanical vectors in the contamination of mouthparts after the puncture of cutaneous cysts or ingestion of infected blood. In this study, a protocol is prese ...
Neospora caninum is a coccidian parasite identified as a major cause of abortion in cattle. A combined infection of N. caninum with another taxonomically related parasite of cattle, Besnoitia besnoiti can occur in geographical areas endemic for both species. Both infections are routinely diagnosed serologically, and incorrect diagnosis could occur if immunological cross-reactivity exists between the two parasites. To investigate the possible degree of cross-reactivity, we compared results obtain ...
Besnoitia spp. are coccidian parasites that infect a variety of wild and domestic mammals as well as some reptiles. Although infection with Besnoitia is common in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), clinical signs or death due to Besnoitia is rare. This manuscript describes four Virginia opossums that had severe clinical disease and inflammation associated with besnoitiosis. Clinical signs included trembling, incoordination, circling, blindness, poor body condition, and sudden death. Gross ...
Cyst stages of the speciesSarcocystis tenella, Frenkelia spec.,Besnoitia jellisoni, andToxoplasma gondii are compared on the electron microscope. Ultrastructural differences between these 4 species are found sufficient to serve as a basis for their exact taxonomic identification. Merozoites, which closely resemble merozoites of other coccidia in regard to shape and ultrastructure, are found in cysts of all 4 species. In addition to them, cysts ofS. tenella andFrenkelia spec. contain metrocytes w ...
Tissue cysts of Besnoitia sp. were found in muscles and several organs from a naturally infected Akodon montensis captured in the rural area of the municipality of Timbó, Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil. Indirect fluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays carried out with sera from mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii and Besnoitia sp. showed, as expected, a stronger reaction against homologous than heterologous antigens. No cross-protection was observed in mice im ...
The diversity among coccidian parasites of the genus Besnoitia is incompletely known. Of the eight currently described members of the genus, only B. jellisoni is known to parasitize a rodent host. Here, we propose a new name, Besnoitia akodoni, for the species initially isolated form the rodent Akodon montensis in Brazil. The tissue cysts of B. akodoni were up to 442 microm in diameter and bradyzoites were 8.4 x 1.4 microm in size. The bradyzoites contained enigmatic bodies, micronemes and rhopt ...
Tachyzoites of Besnoitia darlingi Brumpt, 1913 were redescribed based on new materials isolated from Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, Kerr) from Michigan, U.S.A. Tachyzoites of the MIBD1 strain were propagated in bovine turbinate cell culture for more than two years. A comparison with previously described tachyzoites of the B. darlingi OP1 strain from Mississippi, USA revealed some morphological differences despite the remarkable genetic homogeneity between the two B. darlingi strains. M ...
Gerbils (Meriones tristrami) were infected subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with live culture-grown Besnoitia besnoiti at doses ranging from 10(1) to 10(7) endozoites. All animals injected subcutaneously survived the infection and were refractory to a lethal challenge dose of 10(7) endozoites given intraperitoneally 6 weeks later. By contrast, gerbils surviving primary intraperitoneal inoculation with 10(2) to 10(6) endozoites showed a variable survival rate to challenge. All gerbils develope ...
An in vitro screening of the anti-apicomplexan activity of 51 compounds, stemming from our chemical library and from chemical synthesis, was performed. As a study model, we used Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), expressing β-galactosidase for the colorimetric assessment of drug activity on parasites cultivated in vitro. This approach allowed the validation of a new series of molecules with a biphenylimidazoazine scaffold as inhibitors of T. gondii growth in vitro. Hence, 8 molecules significa ...
Until 2009, bovine besnoitiosis had never been considered endemic in Italy and the only report on the disease in this country referred to animals imported from France shortly before. However, recently, an autochthonous outbreak of bovine besnoitiosis was reported in four herds located at the intersection of the borders between Emilia-Romagna, Toscana and Marche (Northern Apennine Mountains), which has led to an increased awareness concerning this disease. The present study describes a further ou ...
Like most intracellular pathogens, the apicomplexan parasites Besnoitia besnoiti, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum scavenge metabolites from their host cells. Recruitment of the Golgi complex to the vicinity of the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) is likely to aid in this process. In this work, we comparatively assessed B. besnoiti, T. gondii and N. caninum infected human retinal pigmented epithelial (hTERT-RPE-1) cells at 24 h post-infection and used antibodies to confirm Golgi ribbon com ...
Besnoitia caprae is a tissue cyst-forming protozoan that infects goats and has considerable economic importance in certain regions of Asia and Africa. Murine macrophage J774 cell line was inoculated with tachyzoites of Besnoitia caprae (BC-Pars isolate) collected from mice. A significant growth of tachyzoites was observed in J774. Mice were inoculated with tachyzoites harvested from J774 cell culture. Skin samples from the mice infected with tachyzoites of BC-Pars were PCR positive. One mouse sh ...
Multinucleated cysts near the luminal surface of the thoracic aortas of diseased knots (Calidris canutus) were similar to besnoitia cysts. Ultrastructurally, the cyst had four distinct layers. The central area included a vacuole that contained a sporozoan with a conoid, polar ring, micronemes, rhoptries, nucleus, mitochondria, dense bodies, a lipid-like vacuole and endoplasmic reticulum. External to the vacuole was a layer with organelles typical of vertebrate cells. The wall of the cyst was irr ...
A murine monoclonal antibody (MAb 6G7), isotype IgG2a, produced against tachyzoites of Neospora caninum (isolate NC-1) reacted specifically with tachyzoites of N. caninum in an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. MAb 6G7 did not react with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, sporozoites of Isospora suis, Eimeria bovis, or E. tenella, or merozoites of E. bovis in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. MAb 6G7 reacted positively with both tachyzoites and bradyzoites of N. caninum in an ...
Before the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii as a coccidium of the cat in 1970, cat and dog coccidia were classified in the genus Isospora and considered of little clinical or zoonotic significance. Since 1970, several new (Hammondia sp., Neospora sp.) and previously described species, including Sarcocystis, Besnoitia, and Cryptosporidium have been found as coccidians of cats and dogs with clinical and zoonotic significance. In the present paper I review salient features of the evolution of cat and ...
Besnoitia darlingi from naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Mississippi, USA, was propagated experimentally in mice, cats, and cell culture and was characterised according to ultrastructural, genetic, and life-history characteristics. Cats fed tissue cysts from opossums shed oocysts with a prepatent period of nine or 11 days. Oocysts, bradyzoites, or tachyzoites were infective to outbred and interferon-gamma gene knockout mice. Tachyzoites were successfully cultivated and mai ...
The requirement for specificity of antibody-dependent inhibition or killing of intracellular Toxoplasma gondii trophozoites by normal mouse peritoneal macrophages was evaluated in vitro using light microscopy and autoradiography. Anti-toxoplasma antibody in the presence of 'accessory factor' rendered extracellular T. gondii trophozoites non-viable and non-infectious for cells, whereas exposure of extracellular trophozoites to heat-inactivated immune serum did not appear to damage the parasites. ...
Rabbits were infected with a bovine strain of Besnoitia besnoiti parasites derived from VERO cell cultures. Oxytetracycline, given at 30 mg/kg i.m. simultaneously with infection, prevented the development of orchitis. The controls received no treatment. All infected animals showed a transient febrile reaction. It is concluded that oxytetracycline has some therapeutic potential against Besnoitia besnoiti and that rabbits are suitable models for therapeutic trials. ...
A review is given on recent knowledge of the genera Caryospora, Isospora, Cystoisospora, Hammondia, Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, Sarcocystis and Frenkelia. Caryospora hitherto considered to be monoxenous was found to have an optional intermediate host. Many Isospora species had to be transferred to the genus Cystoisospora because optional intermediate hosts were discovered. The obligatory two-host genus Hammondia could be confirmed to be distinct from the genus Toxoplasma. Even though the life cycles ...
The influence of the number of bradyzoites of the Coccidia Besnoitia inoculated in the culture medium of HeLa cells on their penetration rate was investigated. The intracellular penetration rate increased with the "size of inoculum", then seemed constant when a certain density is reached. Important densities of bradyzoites in the inoculum led to an unequal distribution of intracellular parasites among the cellular sheet. Multiple infective units in a same host cell did not occur randomly. It see ...