Stem cells (Total 1162385 Papers Found)

Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are key components of an evolutionarily conserved system of RNA-based gene regulation in eukaryotes. They are involved in many molecular interactions, including defense against viruses and regulation of gene expression during development. miRNAs interfere with expression of messenger RNAs encoding factors that control developmental timing, stem cell maintenance, and other developmental and physiological processes in pl ...
Although the gut is a central organ of Eumetazoans and is essential for organismal health, our understanding of its morphological and molecular determinants remains rudimentary. Here, we provide a comprehensive atlas of Drosophila adult midgut. Specifically, we uncover a fine-grained regional organization consisting of 14 subregions with distinct morphological, histological, and genetic properties. We also show that Drosophila intestinal regionalization is defined after adult emergence, remains ...
Telomere shortening limits the proliferative lifespan of human cells by activation of DNA damage pathways, including upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 (encoded by Cdkn1a, also known as Cip1 and Waf1)) (refs. 1–5). Telomere shortening in response to mutation of the gene encoding telomerase is associated with impaired organ maintenance and shortened lifespan in humans and in mice. The in vivo function of p21 in the context of telomere dysfunction is unknown. Here we show that deletion ...
The identification of genes and deduced pathways from the mature human oocyte can help us better understand oogenesis, folliculogenesis, fertilization, and embryonic development. Human metaphase II oocytes were used within minutes after removal from the ovary, and its transcriptome was compared with a reference sample consisting of a mixture of total RNA from 10 different normal human tissues not including the ovary. RNA amplification was performed by using a unique protocol. Affymetrix Human Ge ...
Using a flow cytometry–based screen of commercial antibodies, we have identified cell-surface markers for the separation of pancreatic cell types derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells. We show enrichment of pancreatic endoderm cells using CD142 and of endocrine cells using CD200 and CD318. After transplantation into mice, enriched pancreatic endoderm cells give rise to all the pancreatic lineages, including functional insulin-producing cells, demonstrating that they are pancreatic prog ...
AIMS Increased dietary fish-oil consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart events and has pronounced effects on dyslipidaemia. However, the effects of fish-oil supplement on vascular function and metabolic profile in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are unclear. METHODS In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, we randomized 97 Type 2 DM patients without prior cardiovascular disease to fish-oil (4 g/day, n = 49) or olive-oil (with equivalent calories, as place ...
Various types of feeder cells have been adopted for the culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to improve their attachment and provide them with stemness-supporting factors. However, feeder cells differ in their capacity to support the growth of undifferentiated hESCs. Here, we compared the expression and secretion of four well-established regulators of hESC pluripotency and/or differentiation among five lines of human foreskin fibroblasts and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts throughou ...
RATIONALE The clinical management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains a major challenge due to lack of effective drug therapy or accurate indicators for disease progression. Fibrocytes are circulating mesenchymal cell progenitors that are involved in tissue repair and fibrosis. OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that assay of these cells may provide a biomarker for activity and progression of IPF. METHODS Fibrocytes were defined as cells positive for CD45 and collagen-1 by flow cyt ...
Our previous studies have shown that the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prevents neuronal cell death caused by several neurotoxins. The present study sought to determine the neuroprotective effect of EGCG when it is administered after the induction of cell damage ('neurorescue'). In an attempt to imitate a progressive mode of death, PC12 cells were initially subjected to serum-starvation conditions for a period of 1 or 3 days before administration of EGCG (0.1-10 micr ...
Mutations of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a protein and lipid phosphatase, have been associated with gliomas, macrocephaly, and mental deficiencies. We have assessed PTEN's role in the nervous system and find that PTEN is expressed in mouse brain late in development, starting at approximately postnatal day 0. In adult brain, PTEN is preferentially expressed in neurons and is especially evident in Purkinje neurons, olfactory mitral neurons, and large pyramidal n ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haploidentical family donors is a promising therapeutic option for high-risk hematologic malignancies. Here we explored in 121 patients, mostly with advanced stage diseases, a sirolimus-based, calcineurin-inhibitor-free prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) to allow the infusion of unmanipulated peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts from partially HLA-matched family donors (TrRaMM study, Eudract 2007-5 ...
During the 2006 BMT Tandem Meetings, a workshop was convened by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to discuss conditioning regimen intensity and define boundaries of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The goal of the workshop was to determine the acceptance of available RIC definitions in the transplant community. Participants were surveyed regarding their opinions on specific statements on conditioning re ...
Manganese is an essential nutrient for humans that has to be maintained at proper levels for normal brain functioning. However, manganese also acts as a toxicant to the brain, and several studies have linked exposure to excessive manganese to neurotoxicity in adults. A recent report has suggested that ingesting high doses of manganese via drinking water can impede intellectual functions in children. It is known that during development, the nervous system is particularly vulnerable to different t ...
We demonstrate that self-renewing myoblasts can be identified in the progeny of single human muscle satellite cells (HMSC) in culture. We show, using cytoskeletal proteins and cell size as markers, that self-renewing myoblasts are phenotypically different from other myoblasts, but similar to native HMSC. Native desmin-positive HMSC, cultured as single cells, yielded two major populations of myoblasts, alpha-sarcomeric (alpha-SR)-actin-positive myoblasts and desmin-positive myoblasts. In appropri ...
The murine Polycomb-Group (PcG) proteins Eed and Bmi1 govern axial patterning during embryonic development by segment-specific repression of Hox gene expression. The two proteins engage in distinct multimeric complexes that are thought to use a common molecular mechanism to render the regulatory regions of Hox and other downstream target genes inaccessible to transcriptional activators. Beyond axial patterning, Bmi1 is also involved in hemopoiesis because a loss-of-function allele causes a profo ...
AIM Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent cell type that can differentiate into non-hematopoietic cells, such as adipocytes. Adipocyte tissue is central to the regulation of energy balance. Two functionally different types of fat are present in mammals. White adipose tissue is the primary site for triglyceride storage, while brown adipose tissue is specialized in energy expenditure. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) controls several aspects ...
Lineage uncommitted pluripotent stem cells reside in the connective tissue of skeletal muscle. The present study was carried out with pluripotent stem cells (PPSCs) isolated from 6-month old rat muscle. Before differentiation, these cells were vimentin+, CD90+, CD45-, and varied in their expression of CD34. The PPSCs were expanded as non-adherent aggregates under similar conditions to those used to generate neurospheres from embryonic or neural stem cells. The PPSC-derived neurospheres were posi ...
Traumatic injuries to the spinal cord lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits. Although no effective therapeutic option is currently available, recent animal studies have shown that cellular transplantation strategies hold promise to enhance functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). This review is to analyze the experiments where transplantation of stem/progenitor cells produced successful functional outcome in animal models of SCI. There is no consensus yet on what kind of ...
Rat liver regeneration was studied from 24 hours to 8 days after a single intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (GalN). Morphological changes in the liver were analyzed in parallel with sequential changes in expression of histone-3 mRNA (a marker of cell proliferation), fetal alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNA and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) (markers of fetal hepatocytes), and albumin mRNA and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) (markers of adult hepatocytes). Proliferation of nonparenchymal ...
Stem cells have been identified as a source of virtually all highly differentiated cells that are replenished during the lifetime of an animal. The critical balance between stem and differentiated cell populations is crucial for the long-term maintenance of functional tissue types. Stem cells maintain this balance by choosing one of several alternate fates: self-renewal, commitment to differentiate, and senescence or cell death. These characteristics comprise the core criteria by which these cel ...
Retinitis pigmentosa belongs to a large group of degenerative diseases of the retina with a hereditary background. It involves loss of retinal photoreceptor cells and consequently peripheral vision. At present there are no satisfactory therapeutic options for this disease. Just recently the use of mesenchymal stem cells has been discussed as one therapeutical option for retinal degeneration, as they have been shown to differentiate into various cell types, including photoreceptor cells. In this ...
Conditioned medium (secretome) derived from an enriched stem cell culture stimulates chemotaxis of human fibroblasts. These cells are classified as multipotent murine mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSC) by immunochemical analysis of marker proteins. Proteomic analysis of mMSC secretome identifies nineteen secreted proteins, including extracellular matrix structural proteins, collagen processing enzymes, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and cystatin C. Immunodepletion and reconstitution expe ...
The role of innate immunity and microglia in the brain is currently a matter of great debate and controversy. While several studies have provided evidence that they contribute to neurodegeneration in various animal models of brain diseases and traumas, others have shown that their inhibition may in contrast be associated with more damages or less repair. We have recently reported the existence of two different types of microglia, the resident and the newly differentiated microglia that derive fr ...
Chronic active EBV disease (CAEBV) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by markedly elevated levels of antibody to EBV or EBV DNA in the blood and EBV RNA or protein in lymphocytes in tissues. We present our experience with CAEBV during the last 28 years, including the first 8 cases treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the United States. Most cases of CAEBV have been reported from Japan. Unlike CAEBV in Japan, where EBV is nearly always found in T or natural killer ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of mammalian oxygen homeostasis. HIF-1 consists of two subunits, HIF-1alpha and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). Whereas hypoxia prevents proteasomal degradation of HIF-1alpha, ARNT expression is thought to be oxygen-independent. We and others previously showed that ARNT is indispensable for HIF-1 DNA-binding and transactivation function. Here, we have used ARNT-mutant mouse hepatoma and embryonic stem cells to ex ...
Macrophage development is regulated by a complex set of hormone-like molecules and cell adhesion events that control the growth and differentiation of progenitor cells. The macrophage scavenger receptor (SR) gene becomes markedly upregulated during the final stages of monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and provides a model for the identification and characterization of transcription factors that control this process. In this report, we have identified three genomic regulatory elements that a ...
Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hES-CMs) are thought to recapitulate the embryonic development of heart cells. Given the exciting potential of hES-CMs as replacement tissue in diseased hearts, we investigated the pharmacological sensitivity and ionic current of mid-stage hES-CMs (20-35 days post plating). A high-resolution microelectrode array was used to assess conduction in multicellular preparations of hES-CMs in spontaneously contracting embryoid bodies (EBs). TTX (10 micro ...
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the CNS in which an unrelenting attack from the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system results in extensive demyelination, loss of oligodendrocytes and axonal degeneration. This review summarizes advances in the understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways involved in neurodegeneration following autoimmune-mediated inflammation in the CNS. The mechanisms underlying myelin and axonal destruction and the equally impor ...
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Curcumin has extraordinary anticancer properties but has limited use due to its insolubility in water and instability, which leads to low systemic bioavailability. We have developed a novel nanoparticulate formulation of curcumin encapsulated in stearic acid-g-chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO-SA) polymeric micelles to overcome these hurdles. RESULTS The synthesized CSO-SA copolymer was able to self-assemble to form nanoscale micelles in aqueous medium. The mean diameter of ...